sexta-feira, 8 de junho de 2007

Economia Criativa - dos bastidores ao protagonismo

Economia Criativa – dos bastidores ao protagonismo
Ana Carla Fonseca Reis
Cultura e Mercado, 28/05/2007

Saindo dos bastidores das discussões restritas à Europa, aos Estados Unidos e à Oceania, a economia criativa finalmente vem tomando lugar de atriz oficial nos debates e conferências brasileiros. A contribuir para esse momento, agentes públicos, privados e instituições discutem o papel da cultura e da criatividade como base de desenvolvimento. No final de maio, mais uma ação emblemática jogou luz sobre essa discussão: a convite da Secretaria da Cultura do Estado de São Paulo, Lord Chris Smith, ex-Secretário de Cultura de Tony Blair, contou sua experiência na implantação e desenvolvimento do programa de economia criativa que catapultou os indicadores econômicos e sociais do Reino Unido.

Alguns comentários foram particularmente dignos de nota. Para começar, uma obviedade recorrentemente negligenciada: que um programa de economia criativa, seja ele definido como for, só pode de fato alçar vôo quando envolve a) as diversas pastas do governo em prol de um objetivo comum e b) estabelece um diálogo efetivo entre o governo e representantes dos setores privados que compõem a economia criativa daquele país. No caso do Reino Unido, são treze setores (ou “indústrias”), envolvendo todas as indústrias culturais e outros setores capazes de gerar direitos de propriedade intelectual, como software, propaganda, moda, design e arquitetura. Todos esses interlocutores integraram uma força-tarefa, capitaneada pelo Ex-Secretário da Cultura, tendo objetivos compartilhados e cuja prioridade era garantida pelos números de um mapeamento que mostrava a importância desse grupo de setores para a geração de emprego e renda no país. Quatro condições, portanto, fizeram-se necessárias para garantir os propalados 7% do PIB que a economia criativa traz ao Reino Unido: conscientização de seu potencial; números que reforçavam essa percepção; políticas integradas e clareza de conceitos.

Quando lhe perguntei quais desafios espreitam a economia criativa britânica para que esta se converta no pólo criativo mundial que se propõe a ser, Lord Smith enfatizou dois, começando pelos direitos de propriedade intelectual (referindo-se não apenas ao controle da pirataria, mas à necessidade de adaptação de indústrias, como a musical, ao paradigma digital). O outro receio? Complacência. Sim, porque o fato de terem uma economia criativa pujante, hoje, não lhes assegura a preponderância no futuro.

Que o diga a Comunidade Européia, esse bloco que completou apenas 50 anos em março – já por si um quebra-cabeças de 27 peças, cada uma defendendo e tratando cultura e criatividade de forma distinta. Estudo publicado pela Comissão Européia ao final do ano passado evidenciou enorme disparidade no foco cultural de cada país – o que não só é natural, como provavelmente saudável. Enquanto a Dinamarca fala de “economia da cultura e da experiência”, a Holanda refere-se à “economia criativa” e a Lituânia disserta sobre as “indústrias de direitos autorais”. Uma verdadeira miscelânia, cujo entendimento é fundamental, a julgar pelo texto do relatório: “O estabelecimento da Europa como um pólo criativo é essencial para a competitividade da União (Européia)... deveria colocar cultura e criação no cerne do projeto europeu para beneficiar a economia européia e seu crescimento.”

Nos Estados Unidos, causou furor o Índice de Criatividade proposto por Richard Florida, em 2003, que contempla três sub-índices: talento (incluindo o número de pesquisadores, de universitários e de profissionais atuantes em setores criativos), tecnologia (voltado à inovação e à pesquisa) e tolerância (como a disposição a rever valores tradicionais e atitudes frente às minorias). Elocubrando sobre a aplicação desse modelo no Brasil, sorrimos diante da tolerância, franzimos o cenho no quesito talento (temos mestres de ofícios maravilhosos, mas uma qualidade de ensino que degringola continuamente) e nos desesperamos frente à tecnologia.
E por que tanta ênfase na tecnologia, mesmo quando se fala de economia da cultura? Em primeiro lugar, porque várias tecnologias (como as que possibilitam a convergência digital e a convergência de mídias, transformando o celular em uma potencial ilha de edição) quebram a concentração dos canais tradicionais de distribuição de bens culturais. Se antes dependíamos das gravadoras para ouvir a música produzida no mundo, hoje carregamos e baixamos arquivos, diretamente do computador do compositor tailandês ou marroquino que as criou. Mais do que uma tecnologia, muda-se o paradigma, inclusive mental, de hierárquico para disperso, de passivo espectador para ativo garimpeiro. E volta-se à questão da exclusão digital levar à exclusão cultural.


Em segundo lugar, criatividade não é compartimentalizada, nós é que tendemos a etiquetá-la. Ser criativo é enxergar o mundo de outra forma, unir pontos aparentemente desconexos, criar soluções novas para problemas antigos e, muitas vezes, para problemas que nem sabemos existir, seja no dia-a-dia, no laboratório ou no atelier. Consta que inovação seja criatividade aplicada à prática. Nesses encontros, arte e ciência são irmãs gêmeas. A fotografia e os exames por imagem que o digam. Ou, ainda, aquela cadeira maravilhosa dos Irmãos Campana, protegida por direitos de desenho industrial. Ou, quem sabe, aquele anel de desenho estupendo, vendido nas grandes cadeias de joalherias, mas cuja lapidação é obrigatoriamente individual. E o que dizer dos ofícios? Não resisto a considerar um cirurgião plástico um artista plástico, assim como fico absorta diante das esculturas em forma de dente dos protéticos.

Criatividade e direito à criatividade, duas questões diferentes. Esbanjamos a primeira, apanhamos para fomentar a segunda. Ou, nas palavras do saudoso Celso Furtado, em seu delicioso livro Cultura e Desenvolvimento em Época de Crise, “Todos os povos lutam para ter acesso ao patrimônio cultural comum da humanidade, o qual se enriquece permanentemente. Resta saber quais serão os povos que continuarão a contribuir para esse enriquecimento e quais são aqueles que serão relegados ao papel passivo de simples consumidores de bens culturais adquiridos nos mercados. Ter ou não direito à criatividade, eis a questão.”

Administradora Pública pela FGV, Economista e Mestre em Administração pela USP, Doutoranda em Arquitetura e Urbanismo pela USP, Ana Carla é Fundadora da empresa “Garimpo de Soluções – economia, cultura e desenvolvimento”, Consultora em economia criativa para a ONU, Curadora da conferência britânica “Creative Clusters”, Diretora de Economia da Cultura do Instituto Pensarte, Coordenadora do curso "Gestão de Políticas e Produtos Culturais" da Faculdade São Luís. Co-autora de “Teorias de Gestão – de Taylor a nossos dias” e autora de “Marketing Cultural e Financiamento da Cultura” e “Economia da Cultura e Desenvolvimento Sustentável - o caleidoscópio da Cultura".

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